Note: Italy


Percy Shelley addressed it as "Paradise of exiles" (Julian and Maddalo) and Byron made it his adopted country until his final sojourn in Greece. Italy was for Mary Shelley's circle a site of symbolic, artistic, cultural--and actual--exile, as well as an ancient ideal standard of civilization against which to measure the fall into servitude and general failings of the present day. (See this 1824 sonnet by Guidiccioni.)

map of Mediterranean region


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