Relative Size of the Organs and Table of References

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Charts such as that in Fowler’s Practical Phrenology (1846) provided a set of easily understood, “objective” measurements which all people —regardless of their medical training—could use to evaluate others. Such charts and the guides which published them trained the nineteenth-century reader in a gaze which privileged the exterior and the scientific—a gaze Michel Foucault identified as the “clinical gaze” (M. Foucault, The Birth of the Clinic 103ff).