Title Image

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Each man in the title image of Cruikshank’s Phrenological Illustrations (1826) is distinguished by his exaggerated expression, unusual head shape, and the phrenological map that has been drawn onto his head. By illustrating the “scientific” mapping of phrenologists, Cruikshank's work reveals the association between disfigurement and character as it was used by both phrenologists and caricaturists (B. Stafford, "Conjecturing the Unseen" 344).