Abstract

Chaosmic Orders: Nonclassical Physics, Allegory, and the Epistemology of Blake’s Minute Particulars

The essay considers Blake's epistemology of "minute particulars" in terms of what the essay defines as "radical organization," the concept in part indebted to the epistemology of quantum mechanics, further linked to the epistemology of allegory in de Man's sense. By so doing, the essay positions Blake's epistemology in relation to both quantum physics and chaos theory. While both depart epistemologically from classical, Newtonian, physics, they are epistemologically different in turn. This difference helps to illuminate the complexities of Blake's epistemology, which, and the way it departs from Newton, have affinities with both of these theories, but does not fully conforms to either. The essay also relates this epistemological problematic to the view of Blake's illuminated manuscripts as (or at least as anticipating) the artists' books-the art form that combines the self-conscious investigation of the conceptual and material form of the book with the interplay of the literary and the visual within it.

Site Four: Romantic Populism and Insurgent Civil Society

This is a hyperlinked dialogue between Steve Newman and Professor Jerome Christensen, author of groundbreaking works on Romanticism. The discussion is built on four sites: 1) Professor Christensen's Romantic education during the rise of Continental theory in the American academy; 2) His critique of the prescriptions posited by new historicism in contrast to Romanticism's ethical imperative to converse; 3) The notion of a Romantic pedagogy in light of his work in digital media and its configurations of consumption as "addiction"; and 4) The place of our teaching and research in relationship to an increasing corporate academy and the cultures of the street.

Site Three: Use, Pedagogy, and Addiction

This is a hyperlinked dialogue between Steve Newman and Professor Jerome Christensen, author of groundbreaking works on Romanticism. The discussion is built on four sites: 1) Professor Christensen's Romantic education during the rise of Continental theory in the American academy; 2) His critique of the prescriptions posited by new historicism in contrast to Romanticism's ethical imperative to converse; 3) The notion of a Romantic pedagogy in light of his work in digital media and its configurations of consumption as "addiction"; and 4) The place of our teaching and research in relationship to an increasing corporate academy and the cultures of the street.

Site Two: Salisbury Plain, Sympathy, and Historicism

This is a hyperlinked dialogue between Steve Newman and Professor Jerome Christensen, author of groundbreaking works on Romanticism. The discussion is built on four sites: 1) Professor Christensen's Romantic education during the rise of Continental theory in the American academy; 2) His critique of the prescriptions posited by new historicism in contrast to Romanticism's ethical imperative to converse; 3) The notion of a Romantic pedagogy in light of his work in digital media and its configurations of consumption as "addiction"; and 4) The place of our teaching and research in relationship to an increasing corporate academy and the cultures of the street.

Site One: A Romantic Education

This is a hyperlinked dialogue between Steve Newman and Professor Jerome Christensen, author of groundbreaking works on Romanticism. The discussion is built on four sites: 1) Professor Christensen's Romantic education during the rise of Continental theory in the American academy; 2) His critique of the prescriptions posited by new historicism in contrast to Romanticism's ethical imperative to converse; 3) The notion of a Romantic pedagogy in light of his work in digital media and its configurations of consumption as "addiction"; and 4) The place of our teaching and research in relationship to an increasing corporate academy and the cultures of the street.

*Prefatory Note*

*Prefatory Note*

Steve Newman, Temple University

Shelley's Golden Wind: Zen Harmonics in A Defence of Poetry and "Ode to the West Wind"

Early in his Defence of Poetry, Shelley undertakes to define art in relation to a "principle" of "harmony" that "acts otherwise than in the lyre," the Aeolian image he deploys to explicate his thesis that poetry is "the expression of the Imagination" and that it is "connate with the origin of man." This principle of harmony undermines all notions of perspective in art, all presumptions of there being anything like a separate poetic self or a separate cosmic force creative in itself and inaugural of human productivity. The aesthetic base of this harmony, if it can be said to have a base at all, is meditative unfolding rather than hermeneutic perception. Art for Shelley is a journey from selfhood (a relational mode of subject-object dissociation) to full personhood (an opening process aligned with interdependent origination). The method of this journey is not self-affirmation or self-projection, as the term "expression of the Imagination" may imply, but self-emptying exposure to a prior Buddhistic oneness with all beings, an "origin" dislocated in time and space yet forever emergent in the moment and accessible through poetry as a mode of spiritual practice. This article explores the theoretical features, the practical functions, and the critical implications of this "origin" through a Zen Buddhist reading of A Defence of Poetry and "Ode to the West Wind."

Hegel on Buddhism

Hegel derived his understanding of Buddhism from a particular sect of Tibetan Buddhism which emphasizes the notion of emptiness. This sect had recently gained political power in Tibet to the exclusion of other legitimate views of the Dharma. This essay demonstrates the signficance of Hegel's misprision of Buddhism for his thought and for Western philosophy in general. In particular, Hegel radically misreads Buddhist meditation as an immersion in "self" ("Insichsein"), and construes Buddhism as a dangerous feminine principle, either too sexual or strangely asexual or autoerotic (as the current Pope has also stated). Using a combination of Buddhist scholarship and philosophy and deconstruction (ways of analyzing that go together quite well), I discover a fatal and phobic fascination with Buddhism in Hegel's thought, a fascination which leads him to develop the idea of "nothingness." "Nothingness" becomes an evocative term which Western philosphy after Hegel will try to include, exclude and police in numerous ways. Most recently, the systematic and shocking (deliberate?) misunderstandings of Buddhism by Slavoj Zizek have been based on this idea of nothingness. "Hegel on Buddhism" shows how this idea is nothing more than a paper tiger, a construct which tells us more about Western philosophy than it does about Buddhism.

Kafka and the Coincidence of Opposites

This study traces the age-old mystical idea of the coincidence of opposites through Kafka's short fiction as well as through his letters and diaries. Its aim is to demonstrate convincingly that Kafka was first and foremost a spiritual writer who composed innumerable variations on the paradox of the One and/in the many in order to spark in his reader insight into the mystery of Being. Along the way, I allude occasionally to the kindred paradoxical wisdom and dark humor of Zen to illuminate Kafka's parables. All in all, the essay constitutes a kind of cautionary argument against current cultural-constructivist interpretations that mean to undermine the view of Kafka's literary sensibility as essentially spiritual.

Lussier, "Enlightenment East and West: An Introduction to Romanticism and Buddhism"

Rather than summarizing the essays appearing in this special issue of Romantic Circles Praxis, this introductory essay provides a historical context for the emergence of what is now termed 'Buddhism' into European consciousness during the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. This essay appears in _Romanticism and Buddhism_, a volume of _Romantic Circles Praxis Series_, prepared exclusively for Romantic Circles (http://www.rc.umd.edu/), University of Maryland.

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